Tire Knowledge

               
                Yokohama has always been an advocate of tire safety. However, there are some situations where a tire failure
                can’t be avoided, but by taking some simple time-efficient safety precautions, drivers can avoid most flat tires.


                Tire technology has made some remarkable advancements in the last decade, but to be as safe as possible, drivers
                should regularly examine their tires before getting on the road.

                Tire Pressure
                It’s important to have the proper inflation pressure in your tires, as under inflation can lead to tire failure. The “right
                amount” of inflation for your tires is specified by the vehicle manufacturer and is shown on either the vehicle door edge,
                door post, glove box door or fuel door. It is also listed in the owner’s manual.

                Tire Alignment
                Misalignment of wheels in the front or rear can cause uneven and rapid treadwear and should be corrected by a tire
                dealer. Front-wheel-drive vehicles, and those with independent rear suspension, require alignment of all four wheels. Have
                your alignment checked periodically as specified by the vehicle owner’s manual or whenever you have an indication of
                trouble such as “pulling.”

                Tire Rotation
                Sometimes irregular tire wear can be corrected by rotating your tires. Consult your vehicle owner’s manual, the tire
                manufacturer or your tire dealer for the appropriate rotation pattern for your vehicle. (NOTE: If your tires show uneven wear,
                ask your tire dealer to check for and correct any misalignment, imbalance or other mechanical problem involved before
                rotation.)

                Tire Tread
                Tires must be replaced when the tread is worn down to 2/32 of an inch. Traction, particularly in bad weather, and
                resistance to hydroplaning is reduced as tires wear. Built-in treadwear indicators, or “wear bars,” which look like narrow
                strips of smooth rubber across the tread will appear on the tire when the tread is worn down to 2/32 of an inch. When you
                see these “wear bars,” the tire is worn out and should be replaced.

                Proper tire care and safety is simple and easy. The Rubber Manufacturers Association (RMA) recommends getting in the
                habit of taking five minutes every month to check your tires, including the spare. If you think you may have a tire problem
                or are unsure of the condition of your tires, consult your tire dealer as soon as possible.

                For more information on how you can safeguard yourself and your vehicle, please refer to the Rubber Manufacturers
                Association
.


                A tire or tyre is a flexible container of compressed air. This air container support the vehicle's load; propels a
                vehicle forward, backward and side-to-side, stops the vehicle, and cushions the load from road imperfections.


                Sipes
                Small, slit-like grooves in tread blocks that allow the blocks to move more. This added flexibility increases traction by
                creating an additional biting edge. Sipes are especially helpful on ice, light snow and loose dirt.

                Belt
                The belt is a reinforcement layer extending around the outer circumference of the carcass under the tread. It acts like an
                iron hoop in improving the stiffness of the tread area. In the case of truck and bus tires, the belt is more heavily reinforced
                compared to passenger car tires.

                Bead
                The bead area supports the extremities of the carcass on each side of the tire. This is the part of the tire that anchors the
                tire to the wheel.

                Blocks
                Those segments making up a tire's tread. The primary function of tread blocks is to provide traction.

                Ribs
                The straight-lined row of blocks that create a circumferential contact "band."

                Shoulder
                Provides continuous contact with the road while maneuvering. Shoulders wrap slightly over the inner and outer sidewall of
                a tire.

                Void Ratio
                The amount of open space in the tread. A low void ratio means more rubber is in contact with the road. A high void ratio
                increases the ability to drain water. Whether a tire has a high or low void ratio depends on the tire's intended use.


                Being able to read and comprehend the information printed on a tire’s sidewall will make it easier for you to
                understand your tires and assist you in choosing a replacement set.



                Tire Sizing Sytem
                On the sidewall of a tire, its size, performance, etc. are shown by using numerical symbols.

                1. Nominal section width (mm)
                2. Aspect ratio (%)
                3. Construction code (Radial)
                4. Rim diameter (inch)
                5. Load index (775 kg)
                6. Speed symbol (300 km/h)

                The LOAD INDEX is a numerical code associated with the maximum load a tire can support. The higher the tire’s load
                index number, the greater its load carrying capacity.

                The SPEED SYMBOL indicates the maximum speed at which the tyre can carry a load corresponding to its Load lndex
                under service conditions specified by the tire manufacturer.

                The ASPECT RATIO of a tire is determined by dividing a tire’s section height by its section width when the tire is: Inflated
                to maximum air pressure, Mounted on the approved measuring rim, and under no load.High performance tires usually have
                a lower aspect ratio than other tires. This is because tires with a lower aspect ratio provide better lateral stability. When a
                car goes around a turn lateral forces are generated and the tire must resist these forces. Tires with a lower profile have
                shorter, stiffer sidewalls so they resist cornering forces better.


                Some of the tire maintenance should be done by the user, while some should be done by tire specialists.

                Most users are capable of visual inspections only, such as checking the inflation pressure, wear condition and the
                appearance of damage. Inspecting tires for their safety and economy (extension of tire service life) is a basic activity of tire
                sales and service people.

                Check inflation pressure
                - Tire's Inflation Pressure is one of the most important factors for safe and economic driving.
                - Be sure to check inflation pressure periodically.
                - Tire's inflation pressure decreases naturally.

                Overinflation
                - Abnormal wear of the tread center (CENTER wear)
                - Ride discomfort like jumping
                - Easy to impact damage
                - Vehicle stability decrease

                Underinflation
                - Abnormal wear on both sides of the tread (SHOULDER wear)
                - Standing wave phenomenon
                - Hydroplaning (aquaplaning) phenomenon
                - Poor cornering stability
                - High fuel consumption
                - Separation and cord break up due to heat build-up

                Tire Rotation
                When tires are used for a long period in the same positions, the front-wheel tires usually wear more quickly than the rear-
                wheel tires. For longer tire life, it is necessary to perform tire position rotations periodically as recommended by the tire
                manufacturer (after 5,000 - 7,500 km for the first rotation and then after every 10,000 km).

                - Prevention of uneven tread wear
                - Extension of tire service life
                - Averaging of tire fatigue

                The front-wheel tires of an FWD vehicle wear two or three times faster than the rear-wheel tires because the front-wheel
                tires function for both driving and steering.

                - Prevention of uneven tread wear
                - Extension of tire service life
                - Averaging of tire fatigue

                The front-wheel tires of an FWD vehicle wear two or three times faster than the rear-wheel tires because the front-wheel
                tires function for both driving and steering.

               

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